ed to develop effective solutions to any programming problem. 7. Reflection is an API which is used to examine or modify the behavior of methods, classes, interfaces at runtime. Comments. JDBC Drivers Types. Have an adult and baby variant. associated with the Java programming language. We work with com-plete Java programs and encourage readers to use them. Work fast with our official CLI. Thinking in Java is the only book I know that explains the WHY of Java; why it was designed the way it was, why it works the way it does, why it This article instructs you in how to compile and run Java programs using Notepad++. Effective-Java-Third-Edition-Reading-Notes, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, Effective-Java-Third-Edition-Reading-Notes.iml. See credits at the end of this book whom contributed to the various chapters. Effective Java - Enums and Annotations There are 3 types of comments available in Java as follows; Single Line Comment Effective Java (3rd Edition) University. whenever a value class has sensible ordering, easy sorting, searching and usage in comparison-based collections, do not use relational comparison operators to determine the result of comparing two elements, alternately, use comparator construction methods in, hide their internal data and other implementation details from other components, thus, they cleanly separate their API from its implementation, components are then oblivios to each other’s workings, this allows for development/optimisation/usage/reasoning/modification, reduces maintenance costs (easier reasoning/debugging/replacement), makes for effective performance tuning (isolation -> does not influence correctness of others), increases reuse (decoupled components usually provide use in contexts beyond original design), de-risks development (individual components may prove successful even if the system does not), after carefully designing a class’ public API, the reflex should be to, change design if you find yourself opening up the API too frequently, there may be a better decomposition with higher decoupling, some fields may leak into the exported API if the class implements, huge increase in visibility when going from default to, becomes a part of exported API (has to be supported forever), overridden methods cannot have restrictive access level in the subclass than it is in the superclass, special rule -> if a class implements an interface, all implemented methods, opening up a class to facilitate testing is acceptable (to a degree), the less restrictive access must not be any higher than, it is fine to make the code “worse” in order to cover it with tests (M. Feathers, “Working Effectively With Legacy Code”), instance fields of public classes should rarely be public, the ability to enforce invariants on the field, exception: it’s always wrong to expose a mutable data structure as, for such instances make an accessor which defencively copies the data structure and make the field, public/protected members of unexported packages in a module are inaccessible outside the module, using the module system allows us to share classes among packages within a module without making them visible to the entire world, the need for this kind of sharing is relatively rar and can often be eliminated by rearranging classes within a package, it is unclear if it will achieve widespread use outside of the JDK itself (where it’s strictly enforced), reduce accebility of program elements as much as possible. immutable classes), best approach is to prohibit subclassing in classes that are not designed and documented for safe subclassing, prohibit inheritance on classes implementing an interface that captures its essence, for other classes, ensure at least that the class never invokes any of its overridable methods and document this, designing a class for inheritance is hard, strongly consider prohibiting inheritance altogether, two mechanisms to define a type that permits multiple implementations: interfaces and abstract classes, existing classes can easily be retrofitted to implement a new interface, they cannot, in general, be retrofitted with a new abstract class without doing collateral damage to the type hierarchy, a mixin is a type thtat a class implements additionally to its ‘primary type’, abstract classes cannot be used to define mixins, interfaces allow for the construction of non-hierarchical type frameworks, interfaces enable safe, powerful functionality enhancements. The required classes for reflection are provided under java.lang.reflect package. they are not analogues of C++ destructors, finalizers are unpredictable, dangerous and generally unnecessary, cleaners are less dangerous than finalizers but still slow, unpredicatble and generally unnecessary, spec makes no guarantee when they’ll be executed, their execution is a function of GC algorithm, thus JVM implementation, never do anything time-critical in a finalizer or cleaner, providing a finalizer may arbitrarily delay reclamation of class’ instances, cleaners are a bit better but still run under the control of GC so still the same applies, uncaught exception thrown during finalization is ignored and finalization of that object terminates, object is potentially left in corrupted state, normally, uncaught exception terminates the executing thread and dumps stacktrace but not if it occurs in finalizer, cleaners: ~5x slower reclamation, equal to finalizers if they’re used to clean all instance of the class, finalizers open up classes to finalizer attacks, if an exception is thrown during finalization, the finalizer leaves the class unreclaimed, attackers can exploit this and run code that shouldnt’ve existed, to protect non-final classes against it - write a, instead of using finalizers or classes simply use, conclusion: don’t use cleaners, or in releases prior to Java 9, finalizers - except as a safety net or to terminate non-critical native resources. Notes: Never trust a user input data; Item 40: Design method signatures carefully. I still like Java, though my ardor has cooled a bit as the platform has grown. Spring, Guice), (CON) classes without public/protected constructors cannot be subclassed, static factories and constructors share a limitation: they scale poorly with the increase of (optional) params, also scales poorly: hard to write with many params and even harder to read, typically a static member class (Item 24), the client code is easy to write and, more importantly, easy to read, check on object fields after copying params from the builder (Item 50), generic builder with recursive type parameters (Item 30) can construct any subclass, more verbose than a telescoping constructor, almost always start with a builder in the first place, especially so if we have more than a handful params, client code much easier to read and write than telescoping constructors, making a class a singleton can make it difficult to test, if a singleton is indeed warranted, create it as a single-element enum, occasionally, we want to write a class that is simply a grouping of static methods and static fields, group related methods on primitive values or arrays, group static methods, including factories (Item 1), default methods are also available (providing we own the interface), group methods on a final class, since we can’t put them in a subclass, as a side-effect, this class is now effectively final, the class cannot be subclassed as there are no available constructors, still, it is good to document this a make the class itself, do not use static utility methods or singletons to handle creations of class’ resources, these yield inflexible and untestable classes, favour dependency injection by supplying the required resource parametrically, we inject (pass) the dependency (resource) into the class that requires it, methods that take this interface should typically constrain the factory’s type parameter with a bounded wildcard type (Item 31), the client should be able to pass in a factory that requires any subtype of a specified type, the manual dependency injection can be automatised with frameworks, creating unnecessary objects can be avoided by using static factory methods (Item 1), some object creations are much more expensive than others, it may be advisable to cache such objects, immutable objects can trivially be reused, adapter is an object delegating to a backing object, providing an alternative interface, has not state beyond the backing object thus provides a view of it, autoboxing can often subtly create unnecessary objects, JVM gc will almost always outperform such pools, exception to this: very expensive objects, when relying on automatic gc, be wary of leaks, example: a resizing-array stack that doesn’t null out its references on, APIs that register callbacks but don’t deregister them explicitly, conclusion: it very desirable to learn to anticipate such problems before they occur as they can be very costly to fix. 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